Roosevelt’s geographers define territory

During WWII the US Department of State worked with an outside group of scholars on “post-war foreign policy.” Prominent among these scholars were members of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) such as Isaiah Bowman and Hamilton Fish Armstrong. Alger Hiss was also involved who as you may know was later convicted as a Soviet spy in 1950. Bowman had proposed Hiss for American Geographical Society membership and was prepared to testify on his behalf at the trial (see Neil Smith’s book for details).

The Territorial Subcommittee of this secret group was Chaired by Bowman and met weekly from March 1942 through the end of 1943, at which time the State Dept. took more direct control. The official history of this group records the definitions of “territory” that they were using:

The term “territorial” was defined in two sense: first, as land with the people on it. As land, it signaled property, which must be delimited for tax purposes, administration of law, and national defense. Boundaries therefore could not be ignored. They still meant what they always had, only to a lesser degree. Aviation and other modern developments of a military and economic nature had modified the significance but not entirely removed either the security or the economic implications of boundaries. These boundaries afforded, in particular, a reduced but still strategically vital period of military warning.

Second, the word “territorial” was considered to mean the historical and present economic, social, and political forces and activities at work inside any area. The center of emphasis, accordingly, was the individual country and its people, but to understand its problems and conditions one had to see beyond it, always keeping in mind the historical forces at work in and around it. The deliberations of the subcommittee focused in this regard upon the requisite conditions for peace and stability both within and among countries.

I think you can see in these definitions both a typically 20th century take on territory as states or countries, but also an especially geographical-historical one where territories are put into a wider context and not just treated individually. Of course the definitions are problematic because for example who are the “people”? Here the subcommittee took an interesting almost critical epistemological approach:

The subcommittee’s initial question was: “What do we need to know” about the problems ahead?

They soon answered this by collecting data on the “population” in each area but it would be interesting to see them decide what they needed to know.

All quotes are from: US Dept. of State Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945. Edited by Harley A. Notter, 1949.


Territory and Justice conference

Territory and Justice Conference – Dublin 12-13 July 2010

There has been a real interest in the relation between political theory and territory recently, although what it tends to do is take territory as a relatively straight-forward notion, and then apply debates of justice to it. This was the case in some of the books recently appearing on this topic which I reviewed here. I fear this conference will be similar, though it is surely a good thing that political science and philosophy is thinking about such issues at all.

Participants and links to abstracts

This is the running order of presenters at the AAG, with links to abstracts. Thanks to all, and to Matt Farish for chairing! I hope to upload the Powerpoints/pdfs (with permission) in the near future.

8:00 AM Author(s): *Jeremy Crampton – Georgia State University, *Stuart Elden – University of Durham
Abstract Title: Territory and Cartography: Setting the Agenda

8:20 AM Author(s): *Nisha Shah – Watson Institute, Brown University/CsGG, LSE
Abstract Title: Metaphors, man and maps: the cartographic production of ‘territory’ as a normative principle

8:40 AM Author(s): *Jouni Häkli – University of Tampere
Abstract Title: Archiving territory, mapping politics

9:00 AM Author(s): *Mark Monmonier – Syracuse University
Abstract Title: Aeronautical Charting and the Production, Reproduction, and Regulation of Airspace by the United States

9:20 AM Author(s): *Richard C. Powell – University of Liverpool
Abstract Title: What is submarine territory? Extending the sovereign rights of the Danish kingdom

10:00 AM Author(s): *Scott Kirsch – University of North Carolina
Abstract Title: The Invention of Territory

10:20 AM Author(s): *John Hessler, Fellow Royal Geographical Society – Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division
Abstract Title: Economic Foundations of Roman Cartography: Bounded Rationality, Territory, and Epigraphy, 100 BC-300 AD

10:40 AM Author(s): *Michael Heffernan – University of Nottingham
Abstract Title: Maps and the City: Paris and the 18th Century Cartographic Imagination

11:00 AM Author(s): *Catherine Dunlop – Yale University
Abstract Title: Borderland Cartography from Below: The Role of Civil Society in Mapping Alsace-Lorraine, 1860-1918

11:20 AM Author(s): *Nessa Cronin, Dr – National University of Ireland, Galway
Abstract Title: The Jurisdiction of the Map: Official and unofficial productions of imperial space in the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 1824-46

12:40 PM Author(s): *Martin Pratt – International Boundaries Research Unit, Department of Geography, Durham University, UK
Abstract Title: Unreliable Witnesses? Maps as Evidence in Boundary and Sovereignty Disputes

1:00 PM Author(s): *Helga Tawil-Souri, Ph.D. – New York University
Abstract Title: Virtually Mapping Palestinian Dis-/Re-Appearances

1:20 PM Author(s): *Mona Domosh – Dartmouth College
Abstract Title: Corporate cartographies and the making of an American empire

1:40 PM Author(s): *Elena Dell’Agnese – Università Di Milano-Bicocca
Abstract Title: “Manifest Cartography”: US territorial expansion, textbooks and the logo-mapping of the Western hemisphere

Setting the Agenda

We said we would post our opening comments to the blog and I’m (JWC) posting these below. We also hope to take the project forward and are working on some plans for this. In the meantime, I’d like to request permission to post the Powerpoints I have, and perhaps the best way to do this is for you to leave a comment below this post if it’s OK to post your slides. Thanks!

Opening comments to Territory and Cartography AAG Sessions

Territory and Cartography

The relation between cartography and territory seems well-known. State territories are one of the key objects of cartographic work, both in terms of their depiction on geopolitical maps and in terms of the state agencies that produce maps of their territory. Here we want to reverse the question: to what extent is cartography productive of territory?

The call for the session came out of a discussion of our own work.

SE – working on a history of the concept of territory, and the contemporary relation between territory and sovereignty, especially under the ‘war on terror’ and the post-Cold War world more generally.

JC – recent book on Mapping: A Critical Introduction to Cartography and GIS, and a series of Progress reports on cartography. The last of which is entitled ‘Cartographical Calculations of Territory’.

Our previous work together – AAG sessions from Philadelphia on ‘Space, Politics, Calculation’ that became a theme issue of Social and Cultural Geography, and a co-edited book on Foucault and Geography.

SE has made the claim that territory needs to be understood somewhat differently to the standard ways geography has tended to describe it: territory is a bounded space, under the control of a group; territory is an outcome of territoriality. But rather than come up with a fixed definition, the aim is to try to think the issues in understanding how it has been understood at different times and places.

Three propositions –

  1. Territory must be approached as a topic in itself; rather than through territoriality. Indeed, it may well be the case that the notion of ‘territoriality’ with regard to humans can only be appropriately understood through a notion of territory.
  2. That territory can only be understood as a ‘bounded space’ if we are prepared to take ‘boundaries’ and ‘space’ as terms worthy of investigation in their own right as a preliminary step.
  3. That ‘land’ and ‘terrain’—as political-economic and political-strategic relations—are necessary but insufficient to grasp ‘territory’. ‘Territory’ must be approached in its political, historical, geographical and conceptual specificity.

An agenda for future work… mine, hopefully providing some conceptual tools that can used, supplemented, criticised and put to work by others broadening beyond a European focus, and taking a wide historical scope.

If territory can be understood as a political technology, comprising a range of techniques for the measurement of land and the control of terrain, then cartography, alongside land surveying and the military, is one of those techniques; part of what might be conceived of as state territorial strategies.

Notion of territory as extension is an old one. The Old Testament (Genesis) narrates the story of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham and Japheth (Gr. Ἰάφεθ, Iapheth), who after the flood had the world divided among them. Japheth had his territory extended (Gen. 9:27) at the expense of Ham, who was cursed for seeing his father’s nakedness, and in the Hebrew Japheth sounds like “extend.” Traditionally, Japheth’s territories were Europe, whereas Ham was allocated to Africa and his descendents were to be Japheth’s slaves. So already we see territory, population and politics intertwined. But also a notion of territory as extension.

In the Middle Ages, Noahian  (Noah’s) races appeared in the form of mappae mundi (maps of the world) known as “T in O” maps. These maps presented a view of territorial division as a fundamental understanding of the world.

In the 18th and 19th C., when writers came to be concerned about race as continent-wide populations, and with natural history more generally (Darwin but also new geological findings), maps also played a critical role by mapping populations into their separate, areally bounded territories. A whole array of map types (maps as technologies of government) were invented in the 19th C. to calculate the (moral, criminal, etc.) health of the population.

By contrast, in the 20th C. anthropologists have mapped human variation not by area, but as geographically graded “clines” (a word coined by the biologist Julian Huxley in 1938, the same year cartographers (J.K. Wright) invented the term choropleth map). From Gr. khora, only inadequately translated as “space.” And the National Geographic’s Genographic Project is mapping human genetic diversity globally.

Counter-mappings (“map or be mapped” as geographer Bernard Nietschmann called it) have been used in the last few decades as the power relations of mapping have become more recognized for purposes of resistance.

Argument is that maps appropriate territory in certain ways, as calculation. Both in discourse and materially. For example, GIScience has increasingly turned to predicate ontology (the world as objects with properties) because these are computationally tractable. But is human life best understood in this way? Materially too, cartographic calculations have real effects with how we regulate space, appropriate nature, deal with movements across space and into privileged spaces, and solve political disputes. Eg., Schengen, border solutions for Bosnia, Israeli settlements in Palestine based on cartographic evidence of occupation in antiquity, etc.

*  *  *

The aim of this session is to bring together papers analysing maps politically in terms of their relation to the state and its territory, drawing on a range of historical and geographical contexts.

We asked the contributors to do a couple of things. One was that we welcomed a focus on the techniques involved in the production of territory; the second was that the papers should principally speak to the question: if we know that the map is not the territory, to what extent is it still productive of it?

Over these three sessions we have papers which look at conceptual issues, aerial sovereignty, maritime territory and underwater – the three dimensional approach (what JC has called ‘the volumetric’);  from antiquity to the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries; Rome, Paris, Alsace-Lorraine, Ireland and Denmark to the Philippines and Palestine; the use of maps in legal disputes; American empire… a wide range of historical and geographical contexts. Theory, politics and history.

Mapping Los Angeles

The LA Times has been working on a fascinating neighborhood project that will be of interest to people who read this blog. They call it simply “Mapping LA.”

The project is interesting for a number of reasons, but one that attracts the attention is that they explicitly consider what it means to draw boundaries around neighborhoods and thereby create a sense of identity, a sense of place.

Another innovative aspect is that they continue to solicit comments from people about these neighborhoods, so that they are characterized by those who live there. This led them to change and modify their original maps.

Lastly, they also make the data available under a Creative Commons license.

Imagine if this was available for your city. What could be done with it?

Wikipedia’s known unknowns

A story in today’s (UK) Guardian documents the uneven geography of knowledge written into Wikipedia and maps it out:

From the article:

There are some countries that are crammed with a dense amount of floating virtual information, such as Germany (with an average of one article tagged for every 65 square km), while others remain as virtual deserts, such as Chad (with an average of one tagged article every 17,000 square km).

Sharp divides between the Global North and the Global South can likewise be seen when looking at the number of geotagged articles per person. Austria, Iceland and Switzerland all have around one geotagged article for every 1,000 people, while in China or Guinea there is just over one article for every 500,000 people.

Africa is still the “dark continent” and the map overall shows a distinct Euro-American focus (although it might be better to normalize this by number of people as the text of the article does; see above quote).

If we grant that technologies produce space, then even very powerful, virtual and “complete” technologies such as Wikipedia are still reproducing existing material relations (Matthew Zook has done excellent work on this).

Progress in Human Geography final report

My final report for Progress in Human Geography has been submitted. If it is accepted it should appear next year online.

These reports have been a lot of work but at the same time intellectually challenging and I hope useful. Following Mark Monmonier as I did I wanted to switch the focus on to issues that are important but perhaps less well investigated (maybe whoever follows me will want to switch to something else). In my case this was a series of concerns around the politics of mapping.

Here are the first and second reports.

The third report is relevant to this blog as it covers calculation and territory. Here is the opening paragraph.

Two themes dominate this year’s report: calculation and territory. Both of these are larger issues than cartography itself, but cartography has been increasingly drawn into their ambit such that we might tentatively identify cartographic calculations of territory. Ranging across a wide set of problems including colonial, political and racial mappings, not to mention indigeneity and philosophical concerns of ontology; calculation and territory mark out a wide swath of cartographically informed work. This is not to foreclose other inflections of this phrase such as “calculative cartographies of territory” to center around the productive role of mapping, or possibly “territorial cartographies of calculation” to highlight how calculation employs mapping. All of these are possible avenues into the complex relationships between mapping, calculation and territory.